Policy No. 1 - BREEDING GUIDELINES
The United States Eurasier Club, Inc. (USEC) expects that all USEC member breeders will become familiar with the FCI Standard No. 291 for the Eurasier breed. USEC breeders are expected to study the Eurasier standard, become educated in Eurasier conformation, and attend any available breeding seminars offered through the USEC or other Eurasier clubs to further their education of the breed. The USEC expects member breeders to adhere to the USEC Code of Ethics and the following USEC Breeding Guidelines to establish and maintain the highest standards of breeding practices among Eurasier breeders in the United States. Failure by a USEC member to comply with USEC policies may result in disciplinary action at the discretion of the USEC Board. In order to maintain the highest level of quality in Eurasier breeding, the USEC issues certificates to breeders that have litters in total compliance with the following guidelines.
A. General Practices
The goal of the breeder must be to obtain healthy and breed-typical Eurasiers in physical characteristics and behavior as described in the FCI Standard No. 291, which can be found here: FCI Standard No. 291
2. Hobby Breeding & Co-Ownership
All breeders must adhere primarily to the USEC Code of Ethics and USEC Breeding Guidelines and secondarily seek additional education from other knowledgeable persons or clubs regarding good breeding practices. The breeder and any co-owners must act first and foremost in the best interest of their Eurasier(s) to ensure their good health and quality of life. In keeping with the philosophy of hobby breeding, Eurasiers should be bred out of sincere love for the breed and a desire to play a role in the breed's welfare and protection. Co-ownerships should only be used for mentoring or expansion of bloodlines within the USEC. In the event a co-ownership arrangement is sought, a contract between the co-owners should define the arrangements of the co-ownership, and should address what will be done in the event a co-owner might, for any reason, be unable or unwilling to breed the co-owned dog. Eurasiers should not be bred as a primary or relied upon source of income for the breeder or co-owners. The breeder should also be willing and prepared to take responsibility for those dogs born in their care, should the need arise, and take the dog back.
3. Family Dog
The Eurasier is to be kept as part of the family, allowing them to live in the home with their family. Eurasiers should not be kept outside or in an outdoor kennel. An important condition for the development of Eurasier puppies is close human contact from birth until they are placed in their new homes. It is also absolutely necessary that this close human contact will be continued when they go to their new homes. Eurasiers should always be raised in the home, with consistent positive human contact.
4. Inbreeding/Line Breeding
Unless unusual circumstances exist where inbreeding has been determined to be in the best interests of the development of the Eurasier breed, inbreeding is not considered to be a good breeding practice in the United States. In general, an inbreeding coefficient less than 5% is recommended for any breeding.
The out-crossing of the breeds of origin (Chow Chow, Samoyed, or Wolfspitz) is not permitted under any circumstances in the United States.
6. Retired Breeding Dog
Breeders are expected to keep retired breeding Eurasiers as an integral part of the family. They will not re-home or dispose of the Eurasier.
7. Eurasier Rescue
If any Eurasier from a USEC breeder is surrendered to Eurasier Rescue, the breeder will either take the dog back or assist with the rescue and care of the Eurasier while a new home is located. If a new home is located through the USEC Rescue a monetary contribution to the USEC Eurasier Rescue fund to cover the costs of re-homing the dog is required.
8. Conformation Showing
Breeders who show their Eurasiers should keep in mind that showing should be fun for both the Eurasier and the owner. The Eurasier is a "natural" dog and should be kept and shown as such. No special products or special grooming other than trimming of hair should be used for show purposes. Eurasiers should not be limited to the sole use of being a show dog that is mostly restricted to crates and traveling, but should continue to be part of the family and be treated accordingly.
9. Promoting Breeders
The USEC will promote all breeders in “good standing”. The club will provide puppy referrals, breeding advice, available reference materials, or other support requested by the breeder. Breeder pages on the club website are also available to all breeders in good standing. Breeders that comply with the USEC Policies, Code of Ethics and Bylaws, and who support the club with the purchase of breeder paid memberships for new puppy owners are considered breeders in good standing. Failure to comply with USEC Breeding Guidelines may result in removal of the breeder from the USEC website or loss of membership privileges.
10. Inactive Breeders
Breeders who have not bred within the past three years, do not have breeding dogs, or do not have any plans to breed for more than one year, will be listed as “inactive” or removed from the USEC website until breeding plans occur.
B. Breeding Under USEC Sanction
1. Advanced Notification of Planned Breeding - 30 Day Minimum Requirement
Official Breeding Notification – USEC member breeders are required to send an official breeding notification to all members of the USEC Board of Directors (email@example.com) providing details of the planned breeding, no later than 30 days before the breeding takes place. If requesting research into potential mates, please make a request to the Board 60-90 days in advance of any breeding. The official breeding notification should include the following:
Full registered names of breeding dogs. This includes the bitch and any considered mate.
Time frame of planned breeding.
Purpose of planned breeding.
Photos of both parents.
Copies of all health test results, if not already submitted to the USEC.
USEC Certified Litter Certificate - Upon notification of the planned breeding the Board will offer support, guidance, advice, input, and any available resources to the breeder. The Board will also assist in the selection of complimentary mates if requested. As a reminder, all requests should be 60-90 days prior to any mating. The Board will evaluate the proposed breeding and will advise in favor of or against the proposed breeding based on the USEC Breeding Guidelines. If the Board advises in favor of the proposed breeding, the breeder will be entitled to refer to the proposed breeding as ‘USEC Certified’, and the USEC will issue a certificate stating that the litter is a "USEC Certified Litter". Breeders who receive this certificate are entitled to receive:
Referrals from the club’s central referral list;
New Puppy Owner Packets;
Printed pedigrees (data permitting); and
USEC PetPlan insurance code for 10% discount and free 30 day breeder trial plans for each puppy.
The following events would EXCLUDE a breeder from receiving a USEC Certified Litter Certificate:
Failure to provide a minimum 30 day advance notice of a breeding to the Board;
Failure to complete all required health tests before a breeding;
Failure to comply with USEC Policy No. 1, Breeding Guidelines or during receipt of disciplinary actions;
Proceeding with a breeding after being advised that it is not recommended by the Board; and
In the event the Board advises against a proposed breeding the Board will offer an explanation and alternate breeding choices. If a breeder decides to move forward with an ill-advised breeding despite the Board’s recommendation, the USEC holds the right to withdraw any assistance in helping place the puppies with potential owners; to remove any links on the USEC website that refer the breeder; nor will the USEC announce the litter in the USEC quarterly newsletter. The Board may also revoke membership rights either temporarily or permanently.
If original breeding plans change from what has been submitted to the Board for approval, the Board should be notified as soon as possible of the change.
2. Breeding USEC Eurasiers with Non-USEC Eurasiers
Breeders/Stud Owners associated with Other Eurasier Breed Clubs
The USEC will support a USEC breeder or stud owner that enters into a breeding arrangement with another breeder or stud owner as long as they are associated with a Eurasier breed club. The breeder or stud owner would still be expected to provide notification to the Board at least 30 days in advance of the Eurasier being bred. It is still expected that the breeder or stud owner provide completed required health tests prior to the breeding to the USEC Board.
Breeders/Stud Owners NOT associated with Other Eurasier Breed Clubs
The USEC reserves the right to NOT offer support if a USEC breeder or stud owner enters into a breeding arrangement with another breeder or stud owner who is NOT associated with a Eurasier breed club. The USEC would not be required to provide a USEC Certified Litter Certificate, nor would the club be required to extend help with research of health issues, inbreeding coefficient, announcement of the litter, or help with placing puppies.
3. Integrity of the Breed Standard
To help ensure integrity of the Eurasier breed in accordance with the FCI standard, breeders are strongly urged to obtain constructive input into the desirability of a breeding, which may include but should not be limited to using the following process:
Photos – Breeders should submit four photos of their Eurasier to the USEC Board or, if available, a USEC breeding subcommittee. The photos should be taken at the following angles or views:
• One head shot (showing characteristics of the dog’s face)
• One front shot (from ears to toes, standing, to show dog’s build from the front)
• One profile shot (nose to tail & ears to toes, standing, to show dog’s build from the side)
• One rear shot (tail to toes, standing, to show the dog’s build from the rear)
The photos are intended to convey a realistic idea of the phenotype of the dog, but it does not serve as sufficiently adequate means alone to determine the suitability of the dog for breeding. The photos will be kept on file with the USEC database.
Database Research – Using the USEC database and the IFEZ database the Board can offer inbreeding coefficients (based on the existing data and limitations of the database itself). Common ancestors and recorded health data between any pairing can also be supplied. Information discovered will be provided to the breeder along with suggestions and comments from the Board. It is advised that the breeder conduct additional research into any health problems discovered within the pairing or lineage of the pairing.
4. Accidental Litters
Accidental litters are not eligible for USEC Certified Litter Certificates.
If the breeder of an accidental litter would like assistance with puppy placement, a monetary donation of $50.00 for each live puppy born to the USEC Rescue is required. Depending on the circumstances of the accidental litter (age of parents, health test results that prohibit from breeding, etc.), disciplinary action may result at the discretion of the USEC Board.
5. Caesarean Births
In the case of a caesarean birth (also known as a "C-Section"), the Board will review a single C-section birth on a case by case basis with supporting veterinarian records (provided by the breeder) to determine whether attempting another litter is considered safe and in the best interest of the Eurasier. In the event that a female requires two C-section births, she should be immediately retired from breeding for her own health and safety.
6. Breeding Females
Breeding Age - The breeding age for the female Eurasier starts at 24 months (2 years) and ends at the end of her 7th year. Required health tests must be completed with acceptable results and submitted to the USEC before any breeding.
Imported Females – If permanent health test results can be obtained from an imported female’s country of origin, special consideration will be given for a breeding age beginning at 18 months and at least 2 heat cycles.
First Litter – A female should have given birth to her first litter no later than the age of five years.
Time Between Litters – Ideally the female should be bred only once per year. Prior to each mating the female should have a veterinarian examination. In general, it is recommended at least one heat cycle without being bred should be allowed for females to rest between litters.
Number of Litters – Typically a female should not have more than four litters in her lifetime. There may be exceptions made for special circumstances at the USEC Board’s discretion.
7. Breeding Males
Breeding Age – The breeding age for the male Eurasier starts at 24 months (2 years). There is no maximum breeding age for males, but typically fertility decreases around the age of 10 years. It is advised to have a sperm analysis done prior to breeding any Eurasier male over the age of 8 years. Required health tests must be completed with acceptable results and submitted to the USEC before any breeding.
Imported Males – If permanent health test results can be obtained from an imported male’s country of origin, special consideration will be given for a breeding age beginning at 18 months.
8. Artificial Insemination
Artificial insemination on dogs that have not reproduced naturally should be avoided to prevent the continuation of a line in which the dogs cannot breed naturally. Exceptions to this rule should be presented to the USEC Board for evaluation at least 30 days prior to any planned artificial insemination. The USEC Board of Directors will evaluate artificial insemination for 'unproven' dogs on a case by case basis.
C. Health Tests and Acceptable Results
All breeding Eurasiers should be up-to-date with their regular veterinarian examinations and considered in good health and fit for breeding. All required health test results must be provided to the USEC Board for documentation.
1. Required Health Tests
Prior to breeding any Eurasier (male or female) and at any subsequent time that there is an indication of a possible problem in the specified area, the following tests must be performed:
Hip Dysplasia Minimum age: 24 months (2 years)
Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA), https://www.ofa.org/, is the primary entity that analyzes hip x-rays for dysplasia in the United States. OFA requires dogs to be a minimum of 24 months (2 years) to be granted a permanent hip score. OFA does offer preliminary scores, however a permanent rating is required for breeding within the USEC.
PennHip, https://antechimagingservices.com/antechweb/pennhip, is an alternative to hip dysplasia testing. The USEC suggests the minimum age of 18 months for the PennHip test.
Imported dogs may have hips evaluated prior to 2 years of age based on the requirements of their club or country of origin, providing the hip testing is done with an FCI approved organization that evaluates and assigns permanent hip scores.
Acceptable Results - Only dogs with satisfactory results should be used for breeding. The following are considered by the USEC to be satisfactory results or ratings:
Fair (B1) - The USEC highly recommends that dogs with a Fair (B1) hip rating only be paired with a mate who has an Excellent (A1) or Good (A2) rating.
Borderline (B2) – Borderline Dysplasia (B2) rated hips should be avoided under almost all circumstances. Borderline (B2) hips can only be considered under special circumstances such as, the breeding base population is very small and the dog has other qualities that would benefit the future of the breed. A Borderline (B2) rating can only be bred with a dog that has Excellent (A1) rating.
Mild (C) and worse – Mild Dysplasia (C) rating and worse are not considered for breeding.
Patellar Luxation Minimum age: 12 months (1 year)
Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA), https://www.ofa.org/, is the primary entity that analyzes for patella luxation. This is a manual exam and does not require x-rays or sedation. The OFA will issue a permanent patella rating at 12 months of age.
Acceptable Results - Only dogs with satisfactory results should be used for breeding. The following are considered by the USEC to be satisfactory results or ratings:
Normal (0/0) - Absent extenuating circumstances, only dogs with a "0" patella rating should be bred.
1/1 - could be made an exception. There may be rare circumstances when other factors in the breeding may be considered and weighed before absolutely ruling out the breeding of a grade 1/1 patella. These dogs should only be bred with a Normal (0/0) patella. Breeders are requested to consult with the USEC Board in cases of 0/1, 1/0, or 1/1 patella ratings if being considered for breeding.
Thyroid Full Panel incl. TgAA Minimum age: 12 months (1 year)
WITHIN ONE YEAR OF BREEDING. There are two organizations within the US that are highly recommended to be utilized for obtaining full thyroid panels: Michigan State and HemoPet/HemoLife, http://www.hemopet.org/ laboratories. (The USEC does maintain a club discount with HemoPet.) The full panel reports with TgAA results may either be submitted to the USEC or reported to the OFA. The OFA will certify a full thyroid panel. It is at the discretion of the breeder on which organization is used for a thyroid panel, as long as it is a credible testing establishment. Breeders must be sure the test includes the TgAA. Thyroid disease can happen at any time in a dog’s lifetime; typically the disease appears between the ages of 2 and 8 years old. For this reason, the USEC requires updated thyroid panels at a minimum of once every 12 months (preferably anestrus for females).
NORMAL – as indicated on the test, on all measures of a full thyroid panel including TgAA.
Upon request of the breeder the USEC can consult with Dr. Jean Dodds of HemoPet about the thyroid panel results.
Equivocal – will require retesting.
TgAA Positive – is not acceptable for breeding
Eyes Recommended age: 12 months (1 year)
*The Companion Animal Eye Registry does NOT have a minimum age for testing, only that the eyes of a puppy must be open. YEARLY EXAM or between breedings. The eye examination for observable inherited eye disease by board certified (ACVO) veterinary ophthalmologists, with the results registered with the OFA as Companion Animal Eye Registry (CAER), are acceptable. https://www.ofa.org/diseases/eye-certification
Note: After the initial CAER certified eye exam, the yearly updated exams may be done by a veterinarian looking for: distichiasis, entropion, and ectropion.
Clear (Normal) – Any result other than Clear (Normal) should consult with the USEC Board in terms of breeding.
Distichiae - Other factors will be taken into consideration, such as if the distichiae is causing problems like tearing eyes, deep set eyes, etc. Other faults of the dog should also be noted.
As a general rule these guidelines will be followed:
Light Distichiae (1-5 lashes) is acceptable for breeding;
Medium Distichiae (6-11 lashes) the breeding partner should be clear of distichiae;
More than 11 lashes are considered problematic and not acceptable for breeding or may require subsequent retesting.
Canine Lipid Dystrophy – (fatty deposits on the cornea) If identified, breeding the dog is breeder’s discretion.
Brucellosis Approx. 30-60 Days Prior to Breeding
Brucellosis should be tested prior to each breeding on both male and female dogs. This includes the maiden, or first, mating for each dog. Testing 30-60 days prior to a breeding will allow time for a retest if necessary.
Only uninfected dogs are allowed to breed.
Dandy Walker-Like Malformation Minimum Age: Any
This is a DNA test that can be performed at any age. Carriers of the Dandy Walker-Like Malformation may breed, but only to NON-CARRIERS. If both parents of the breeding dog were tested and are both verified NON-CARRIERS of Dandy Walker-Like Malformation there is no need to submit a genetic test for any of their offspring.
A few available sources for the Dandy Walker-Like Malformation test kit is available at:
Non-Carriers – May be bred with non-carriers and carriers
Carriers – May be bred with non-carriers only
Note: When breeding a known carrier of either sex, pups that are intended for breeding homes should be tested to ensure only non-carriers go to potential breeders.
2. Optional Health Tests
The following tests are considered important and beneficial tests, but are optional for the USEC. It is up to the breeder’s discretion to perform these health tests:
Pancreatic Function Test (EPI)
Genetic Color Testing
White Gene (e allele) - This DNA test may be recommended if breeding to a known carrier or if known carriers exist in a dog’s lineage. If unknown, please consult the USEC Board for direction.
White Spotting/Piebald Gene (sp allele) – This DNA test may be recommended if breeding to a known carrier or if known carrier or if known carriers exist in a dog’s lineage. If unknown, please consult the USEC Board for direction.
Epidermolysis Bullosa - This DNA test can be performed at any age. If there is a concern of epidermolysis bullosa in a dog’s lineage or if the dog is imported and parents have not been tested, then an EB carrier test may be required. Testing kits are available with several labs, such as PennGen and VetGen, for example.
3. Faults that EXCLUDE a Eurasier from Breeding
Hip Dysplasia of Mild (C) and worse
Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency (EPI)
Auto-Immune Thyroiditis (TgAA positive)
Congenitally Incomplete Teeth – Only the P1, P2, or M3 may be missing, any other missing teeth is a fault that would eliminate a dog from breeding.
Congenital swallowing problems during youth; such as mega-esophagus (achalasia) or physical anomalies in the mouth area
Pure white coat color, pintos, white irregular patches, and liver coat color
Cryptorchidism (absence of one or both testes from the scrotum)
Strong Lack of Pigment
Lack of Gender Characteristics
Aggression/Temperament Problems (Refer to the USEC Breeding and Temperament Guidelines for more information)
Or other health related conditions that are considered genetic
*Note exceptions described in Section C(1) Required Health Test.
4. Submission of Health Tests to the USEC
Upon receipt of available input and additional consideration of whether the proposed breeding furthers the interests of the USEC and the Eurasier breed in the United States, the breeder is requested to submit the health test results electronically (preferred) or by mailing a hardcopy to the database administrator for data collection and statistical purposes. Additionally, please provide any known information on any serious illness, disease, allergies or surgeries of the dog or his lineage; as well as information on why this breeding is proposed.
5. Obtaining Offspring Health Information
It is beneficial to the breeder, and the breed as a whole, that breeders encourage their puppy owners to complete health tests once their dogs reach maturity. Test results for tests such as hips, thyroid, patella, and eyes are crucial for breeders to ensure the continued health of the breed in the United States. Any information received should be shared with the USEC Database Administrator. Offering monetary rebates or requiring deposits for completing health testing in puppies may produce more results.
6. Planning and Placement of the Litter
Prospective Owners - Breeders should plan the placement of their litters in advance of breeding to ensure that there are a sufficient number of prospective owners waiting to provide the best homes possible prior to the conception of the litter. The breeder should screen applicants thoroughly in advance to determine their ability to provide an appropriate quality of life for the Eurasier. Breeders are encouraged to review their sales contract and the health information of the sire and dam of the litter with prospective purchasers as part of the screening process.
Personal Records - Every breeder must keep personal records of each litter bred. Breeders should make every effort to maintain contact with puppy owners, keeping track of any changes of address, phone numbers, email addresses, and health information throughout the life of the dog.
Breeders in Good Standing - Breeders in good standing who support the club by purchasing breeder paid memberships for new owners are eligible to receive club assistance with placement of pups by access to the USEC Centralized List of Potential Adopting Families.
Database Information - For statistical purposes for the USEC database and for the IFEZ database participation, the breeder must provide information on all litters to the USEC Database Administrator within three months after birth including but not limited to, date of birth, registered names of parents, any problems encountered during whelping, full registered names, call names, color, sex, any noted deviations from the breed standard, state (or country) of residence of the puppy, and, if consent has been provided by the new owners, to include their name and address. The USEC maintains a specific Litter Data Form for breeders to utilize and is available upon request.
Non-Breeding Agreements - All USEC breeders are strongly encouraged to use a Non-Breeding Agreement with the CKC Registration. In the breeder’s contract, if the new puppy owner would like to breed in the future, then the Non-Breeding Agreement can be lifted once the dog in question has turned two years old AND has all required health tests completed. Health test results and certificates should be provided to the breeder along with the USEC Database Administrator and the Eurasier should be shown to have an acceptable phenotype and temperament.
Stud Contract - Breeders and stud owners should develop a mutually agreed upon contract that is signed by both parties.
Sales Contract - Breeders should provide a written contract between themselves and the puppy buyer. This sales contract should include some type of health guarantee against genetic defects in the puppy for a specified period after taking the puppy home.
Registration of Puppy - Breeders must provide registration papers for their puppies to the new owners within a period of one year from the puppies' birth. If, for reasons beyond the breeder’s control, the registration papers are delayed, the breeder should contact the owners and provide an explanation and reasonable time frame of receipt of registration papers.
Advertising - The USEC discourages breeders from advertising puppies for sale in newspapers, magazines, or solicitation on social media (Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Craig’s List, etc.).
This policy was adopted by the United States Eurasier Club, Inc.'s Board of Directors
on this 9th day of May, 2005.
Amended on March 22, 2011; December 5, 2015; April 16, 2019.
Policy No. 1